Fusarium species,Scedosporium species, and Lomentospora prolificans: A systematic review to inform the World Health Organization priority list of fungal pathogens

Med Mycol. 2024 Jun 27;62(6):myad128. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myad128.


Recognizing the growing global burden of fungal infections, the World Health Organization established a process to develop a priority list of fungal pathogens (FPPL). In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and impact of infections caused by Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., and Lomentospora prolificans to inform the first FPPL. PubMed and Web of Sciences databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1, 2011 and February 23, 2021, reporting on mortality, complications and sequelae, antifungal susceptibility, preventability, annual incidence, and trends. Overall, 20, 11, and 9 articles were included for Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., and L. prolificans, respectively. Mortality rates were high in those with invasive fusariosis, scedosporiosis, and lomentosporiosis (42.9%-66.7%, 42.4%-46.9%, and 50.0%-71.4%, respectively). Antifungal susceptibility data, based on small isolate numbers, showed high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC)/minimum effective concentrations for most currently available antifungal agents. The median/mode MIC for itraconazole and isavuconazole were ≥16 mg/l for all three pathogens. Based on limited data, these fungi are emerging. Invasive fusariosis increased from 0.08 cases/100 000 admissions to 0.22 cases/100 000 admissions over the time periods of 2000-2009 and 2010-2015, respectively, and in lung transplant recipients, Scedosporium spp. and L. prolificans were only detected from 2014 onwards. Global surveillance to better delineate antifungal susceptibility, risk factors, sequelae, and outcomes is required.

Keywords: Fusarium; Lomentospora prolificans; Scedosporium apiospermum; antifungal resistance; epidemiology; fungemia; invasive fungal disease; mortality.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Ascomycota / drug effects
  • Fusariosis / epidemiology
  • Fusariosis / microbiology
  • Fusarium* / drug effects
  • Fusarium* / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Invasive Fungal Infections
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  • Mycoses / epidemiology
  • Mycoses / microbiology
  • Scedosporium* / classification
  • Scedosporium* / drug effects
  • Scedosporium* / isolation & purification
  • World Health Organization


  • Antifungal Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • scedosporiosis