In spite of an apparent decrease in its occurrence during the last 2-3 decades, amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis is a significant cause of increased morbidity and early death in both juvenile- and adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Like other forms of reactive amyloidosis, the amyloid fibrils associated with rheumatoid disorders are of the protein AA type, and the acute phase reactant SAA, which is complexed to high density lipoprotein in serum, is its putative precursor. Raised SAA appears to be one of the prerequisites for the development of reactive, AA amyloid. Effective treatment of the underlying disorder i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, which lowers the levels of SAA is, therefore, recommended both as a prophylactic and therapeutic measure against reactive amyloidosis. As renal disease is the most severe and life-threatening consequence of reactive amyloidosis, both hemodialysis and renal transplantation are also to be considered in such patients.