Forty-six renal donors who responded to a questionnaire and two additional donors with nephrotic syndrome and renal insufficiency were studied. The mean age was 46 +/- 2.0 years (mean +/- SE). Duration of follow-up was 6 +/- 0.5 years. Serum creatinine levels increased from 1.0 +/- 0.03 mg/dl before donation to 1.2 +/- 0.04 mg/dl at follow-up. The incidence of proteinuria (more than 150 mg over 24 hours) was 39 percent. The serum creatinine level was 1.0 +/- 0.08 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.06 mg/dl in the proteinuric and nonproteinuric groups, respectively. The incidence of hypertension was 31 percent with a serum creatinine level of 1.1 +/- 0.11 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.07 mg/dl in the hypertensive and normotensive groups, respectively. One patient with nephrotic syndrome had proliferative glomerulonephritis. It is concluded that renal donation is associated with a minimal but statistically significant increment in serum creatinine levels. The incidence of mild hypertension and proteinuria is increased, but impact on renal function is minimal as assessed by serum creatinine determination.