Predictive factors for acute kidney injury and amputation in crush injuries from the Kahramanmaraş earthquakes

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2024 Jul;30(7):500-509. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2024.06228.


Background: Crush syndrome (CS) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality due to severe electrolyte disorders, circulatory dysfunction, and multiple organ failure, secondary to severe rhabdomyolysis and reperfusion injuries. Acute kidney injury (AKI) related to crush syndrome is one of the life-threatening complications and is the most frequent cause of death following earthquakes, other than trauma. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictive parameters from clinical and laboratory data that aid in recognizing CS, assessing its severity, and evaluating acute kidney injury and amputation indications in patients.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical data and laboratory follow-up of 33 patients treated for crush syndrome within the first two weeks following the February 6, 2023 earthquake. Patients who underwent surgery for crush syndrome but could not be followed post-surgery were excluded. Laboratory parameters were analyzed upon admission and then daily over an average seven-day follow-up. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0 and R Studio software.

Results: Of the 33 patients, 17 were male and 16 were female. The incidence of AKI was 35.7%, 66.7%, and 100% in patients with injuries to one, two, and three extremities, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total entrapment time and the duration of required dialysis days; AKI risk significantly increased with more than six hours of total entrapment time. Regarding the initial blood values upon hospital admission, a myoglobin level exceeding 2330 mg/dL demonstrated the highest sensitivity for predicting AKI. An initial uric acid level (>6.36 mg/dL) on admission had the highest specificity for predicting AKI. The initial myoglobin level (>3450 mg/dL) showed the highest sensitivity in predicting the need for amputation. Meanwhile, the mean creatine kinase (CK) level (>34800 U/L) exhibited the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity for amputation prediction.

Conclusion: The study analyzed the effectiveness and predictability of clinical and laboratory findings concerning amputation and acute kidney injury in crush syndrome resulting from earthquakes. Effective amputation management is a crucial factor influencing prognosis and survival in patients with earthquake-induced crush syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / blood
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amputation, Surgical* / statistics & numerical data
  • Crush Injuries / surgery
  • Crush Syndrome* / blood
  • Crush Syndrome* / complications
  • Crush Syndrome* / surgery
  • Earthquakes*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Young Adult