Mid- to long-term outcomes of proximal humerus fractures treated with open reduction, plate fixation, and iliac bone autograft augmentation

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2024 Jul;30(7):518-524. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2024.74422.

Abstract

Background: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using locking plates is a widely adopted treatment for displaced proximal humerus fractures. Various augmentation techniques have been developed to enhance the stability of plate fixation. Among these, iliac bone autograft is notable for its advantages over allografts, such as ready availability and the elimination of costs and risks associated with disease transmission. Despite its potential benefits, data on the outcomes of iliac bone autograft augmentation (IBAA) are still limited. This study aims to present the mid- to long-term results of treating proximal humerus fractures with ORIF using locking plates and IBAA.

Methods: The study included 15 patients treated with ORIF and IBAA. We classified fracture patterns using the Neer classification and estimated local bone density via the deltoid tuberosity index. We measured the neck shaft angle (NSA) and humeral head height (HHH) on both immediate postoperative and most recent X-ray images to assess the maintenance of reduction. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and Constant scores.

Results: The average follow-up duration was 59.56 months, ranging from 24 to 93 months. A majority of fractures were classified as four-part (53%). The average immediate and late postoperative NSAs were 132.6±8.19 and 131.6±7.32 degrees, respectively. The average HHH on the immediate postoperative and latest follow-up images were 16.46±6.07 and 15.10±5.34, respectively. None of the patients exhibited any radiological signs of avascular necrosis or loss of reduction at the latest follow-up. The mean postoperative Constant and DASH scores at the latest follow-up were 79.6 and 11.5, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ORIF with IBAA is an effective method for managing three- or four-part proximal humerus fractures, yielding excellent outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Autografts
  • Bone Plates*
  • Bone Transplantation / methods
  • Female
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal* / methods
  • Humans
  • Ilium* / transplantation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Open Fracture Reduction* / methods
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shoulder Fractures* / surgery
  • Transplantation, Autologous / methods
  • Treatment Outcome