An atlas of the tomato epigenome reveals that KRYPTONITE shapes TAD-like boundaries through the control of H3K9ac distribution

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Jul 9;121(28):e2400737121. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2400737121. Epub 2024 Jul 5.


In recent years, the exploration of genome three-dimensional (3D) conformation has yielded profound insights into the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions in both animals and plants. While animals exhibit a characteristic genome topology defined by topologically associating domains (TADs), plants display similar features with a more diverse conformation across species. Employing advanced high-throughput sequencing and microscopy techniques, we investigated the landscape of 26 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Our study unveiled a rich and nuanced epigenetic landscape, shedding light on distinct chromatin states associated with heterochromatin formation and gene silencing. Moreover, we elucidated the intricate interplay between these chromatin states and the overall topology of the genome. Employing a genetic approach, we delved into the role of the histone modification H3K9ac in genome topology. Notably, our investigation revealed that the ectopic deposition of this chromatin mark triggered a reorganization of the 3D chromatin structure, defining different TAD-like borders. Our work emphasizes the critical role of H3K9ac in shaping the topology of the tomato genome, providing valuable insights into the epigenetic landscape of this agriculturally significant crop species.

Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum; chromatin; genome topology.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Epigenome*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genome, Plant
  • Heterochromatin / genetics
  • Heterochromatin / metabolism
  • Histone Code / genetics
  • Histones* / genetics
  • Histones* / metabolism
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Solanum lycopersicum* / genetics
  • Solanum lycopersicum* / metabolism


  • Histones
  • Chromatin
  • Plant Proteins
  • Heterochromatin