Unraveling diabetes complexity through natural products, miRNAs modulation, and future paradigms in precision medicine and global health

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2024 Jul 1:63:283-293. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2024.06.043. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background and aims: The challenge posed by diabetes necessitates a paradigm shift from conventional diagnostic approaches focusing on glucose and lipid levels to the transformative realm of precision medicine. This approach, leveraging advancements in genomics and proteomics, acknowledges the individualistic genetic variations, dietary preferences, and environmental exposures in diabetes management. The study comprehensively analyzes the evolving diabetes landscape, emphasizing the pivotal role of genomics, proteomics, microRNAs (miRNAs), metabolomics, and bioinformatics.

Results: Precision medicine revolutionizes diabetes research and treatment by diverging from traditional diagnostic methods, recognizing the heterogeneous nature of the condition. MiRNAs, crucial post-transcriptional gene regulators, emerge as promising therapeutic targets, influencing key facets such as insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. Metabolomics, an integral component of omics sciences, contributes significantly to diabetes research, elucidating metabolic disruptions, and offering potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized therapies. Bioinformatics unveils dynamic connections between natural substances, miRNAs, and cellular pathways, aiding in the exploration of the intricate molecular terrain in diabetes. The study underscores the imperative for experimental validation in natural product-based diabetes therapy, emphasizing the need for in vitro and in vivo studies leading to clinical trials for assessing effectiveness, safety, and tolerability in real-world applications. Global cooperation and ethical considerations play a pivotal role in addressing diabetes challenges worldwide, necessitating a multifaceted approach that integrates traditional knowledge, cultural competence, and environmental awareness.

Conclusions: The key components of diabetes treatment, including precision medicine, metabolomics, bioinformatics, and experimental validation, converge in future strategies, embodying a holistic paradigm for diabetes care anchored in cutting-edge research and global healthcare accessibility.

Keywords: Bioinformatics; Diabetes; Molecular metabolism; Natural product; Novel insights; Nutrition; Therapeutic strategies; miRNA.

Publication types

  • Review