Pancreatic islet cell antibodies and 12 other autoantibodies were measured at the time of diabetes diagnosis in 46 Pima Indians, aged 17--47 years, and in 46 age-sex matched non-diabetic controls. Islet cell antibodies were found in only two diabetics, aged 20 and 25, compared with none of 46 controls. Neither of the subjects with islet cell antibodies had other autoantibodies. At least one type of autoantibody was found in 14 (30%) of the diabetics and in 14 controls, but none was significantly associated with diabetes. This study indicates that diabetes in the Pima Indians, even those with an onset below 25 years of age, is almost entirely of type II, in that the disease is not associated with islet cell antibodies, ketoacidosis, or insulin dependence.