Intravenous Immunoglobulins for Recurrent Chronic Histiocytic Intervillositis: A Series of Case Studies

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2024 Jul;92(1):e13898. doi: 10.1111/aji.13898.


Introduction: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) is a rare inflammatory placental disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of monocytes into the intervillous space and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. No treatment is currently validated and although in some small reports, steroids with hydroxychloroquine have been described. There are no data for other therapies in refractory cases.

Patients and methods: We here report four cases of patients with a history of CHI treated with immunoglobulins during a subsequent pregnancy. The four patients with recurrent CHI had failed to previous immunomodulatory therapies with steroids and hydroxychloroquine. All patients had at least four pregnancy losses with histopathological confirmation of CHI for at least one pregnancy loss. The usual pregnancy-loss etiology screening and immunological screening were negative for all the patients.

Results: For three patients, intravenous immunoglobulins were initiated at the βHCG positivity at 1 g/kg every 15 days until delivery. In one case with combined therapy since the beginning of the pregnancy, intravenous immunoglobulins were introduced at 20 WG because of severe growth restriction. Two patients had live births at 36 WG and one patient at 39 WG. One patient, who presented early first-trimester hypertension and severe placental lesions, failed to intravenous immunoglobulins and had a pregnancy loss at 15 WG.

Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the potential benefit of intravenous immunoglobulins in recurrent chronic intervillositis. Larger studies are needed to confirm this potential benefit for patients presenting severe cases of recurrent CHI.

Keywords: chronic histiocytic intervillositis | outcomes | rare placental disorder | stillbirth.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chorionic Villi / pathology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous* / therapeutic use
  • Placenta / pathology
  • Placenta Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Placenta Diseases* / pathology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Recurrence


  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous