Single-cell view into the role of microbiota shaping host immunity in the larynx

iScience. 2024 May 31;27(6):110156. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2024.110156. eCollection 2024 Jun 21.


Microbiota play a critical role in the development and training of host innate and adaptive immunity. We present the cellular landscape of the upper airway, specifically the larynx, by establishing a reference single-cell atlas, while dissecting the role of microbiota in cell development and function at single-cell resolution. We highlight the larynx's cellular heterogeneity with the identification of 16 cell types and 34 distinct subclusters. Our data demonstrate that commensal microbiota have extensive impact on the laryngeal immune system by regulating cell differentiation, increasing the expression of genes associated with host defense, and altering gene regulatory networks. We uncover macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, and multiple secretory epithelial cells, whose cell proportions and expressions vary with microbial exposure. These cell types play pivotal roles in maintaining laryngeal and upper airway health and provide specific guidance into understanding the mechanism of immune system regulation by microbiota in laryngeal health and disease.

Keywords: Immunity; Microbiome; Transcriptomics.