The lipid droplet assembly complex consists of seipin and four accessory factors in budding yeast

J Biol Chem. 2024 Jul 7:107534. doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2024.107534. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Seipin, a crucial protein for cellular lipid droplet (LD) assembly, oligomerizes at the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs to facilitate neutral lipid packaging. Using proximity labeling, we identify four proteins-Ldo45, Ldo16, Tgl4, and Pln1-that are recruited to the vicinity of yeast seipin, the Sei1-Ldb16 complex, exclusively when seipin function is intact, hence termed seipin accessory factors. Localization studies identify Tgl4 at the ER-LD contact site, in contrast to Ldo45, Ldo16 and Pln1 at the LD surface. Cells with compromised seipin function resulted in uneven distribution of these proteins with aberrant LDs, supporting a central role of seipin in orchestrating their association with the LD. Overexpression of any seipin accessory factor causes LD aggregation and affects a subset of LD protein distribution, highlighting the importance of their stoichiometry. Although single factor mutations show minor LD morphology changes, combined mutations have additive effects. Lastly, we present evidence that seipin accessory factors assemble and interact with seipin in the absence of neutral lipids and undergo dynamically rearrangements during LD formation induction, with Ldo45 acting as a central hub recruiting other factors to interact with the seipin complex.

Keywords: ER-LD contact site; LD assembly; Seipin; TurboID; lipid droplet; perilipin.