Can Glypican-6 Levels Be Used to Determine Right Ventricular Remodeling After Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction?

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2024 Jul;52(5):307-314. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2024.15672.


Objective: Myocardial infarction is associated with right ventricular (RV) remodeling. Glypican-6 (GPC6), a member of the membrane proteoglycan family, plays a significant role in cardiac remodeling. This study aims to determine if GPC6 can predict RV remodeling after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Methods: The study enrolled 164 consecutive patients with NSTEMI and controls. It compared baseline plasma GPC6 levels, echocardiography, and laboratory parameters between the RV remodeling and non-RV remodeling groups with NSTEMI. Echocardiographic data were measured at baseline and at six months.

Results: GPC6 levels were higher in the NSTEMI group 11.06 ng/mL (4.61-18.17) vs. 5.98 ng/mL (3.81-9.83) compared to the control group in the initial phase. RV remodeling, defined as a ≥ 20% increase in RV end-diastolic area (RV EDA), was observed in 23 patients (30%). After six months, RV EDA increased significantly from baseline 18.68 ± 1.20 cm2 vs. 24.91 ± 1.08 cm2, P < 0.001. GPC6 was a significant independent predictor of RV remodeling (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.546, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.056-2.245, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed that GPC6 values > 15.5 ng/mL (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.828, sensitivity: 70%, specificity: 74%, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of RV remodeling.

Conclusion: NSTEMI patients should be closely monitored for RV remodeling. GPC6 appears useful in detecting RV remodeling following NSTEMI in patients undergoing PCI.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Glypicans* / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction* / blood
  • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction* / physiopathology
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • ROC Curve
  • Ventricular Remodeling* / physiology


  • Glypicans
  • Biomarkers