Glycerol release from the human forearm which is generally used as a semiquantitative index of intramuscular lipolysis was studied under different hormonal influence and substrate supply in healthy volunteers and juvenile diabetics using the forearm technique. Acute insulin deficiency in juvenile diabetics failed stimulating the rate of muscular lipolysis since the rates of glycerol release in normals and diabetics were the same. In addition, in normal volunteers high physiological levels of insulin caused by an intraarterial infusion of the hormone exhibited no effect on the glycerol release from deep forearm tissue. Similarly, an intraarterial infusion of metaproterenol did not accelerate muscular glycerol release in normal man. However, in juvenile diabetics in acute insulin deficiency the same dose of the catecholamine increased the rate of muscular glycerol production. Elevated substrate supply during intravenous infusion of glucose or fructose yielded increased uptake of glucose and fructose into the deep forearm tissue and thereby promptly blocked muscular glycerol release in normal volunteers and in juvenile diabetics. These findings suggest that the rate of lipolysis in muscle tissue is not primarily under the control of hormones but rather by substrate supply.