Laboratory studies were performed on 3 Collies with familial canine dermatomyositis, 6 progeny from a breeding of 2 of the Collies (incross litter), and 4 progeny from the breeding of an affected Collie male and a normal Labrador Retriever (outcross litter). Hematologic abnormalities were leukogram changes consistent with inflammation, and, in 2 severely affected incross dogs, anemia of inflammatory disease. Serum muscle enzyme activities were not markedly increased. High concentrations of immune complexes and proportionally increased total immunoglobulin G were present in the sera of moderately and severely affected incross dogs. The same dogs had weakly positive direct Coombs' tests, and 1 affected outcross dog had a strongly positive direct Coombs' test. Rheumatoid factor was present in a severely affected incross dog. A few dogs had polyclonal globulin increases that were attributed to inflammation. Low antibody titers to canine calicivirus were present in 3 dogs and a low titer to canine coronavirus was present in 1 dog.