The ontogenetic polyploidization of hepatocytes is regarded, within which normal mitoses are changed to polyploidizing mitoses, and diploid hepatocytes transform into polyploid mono- and binuclear cells. A new hypothesis is put forward of the biological significance of the liver cell polyploidy. The hypothesis takes into account a high level of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in mitotic hepatocytes. The chromosome structural changes interfere with mitosis resulting in the chromosomal imbalance. Polyploidy bestows for hepatocytes a tolerance towards a chromosomal imbalance. Some implications of the hypothesis are discussed: unbalanced genome of hepatocytes after the treatment with mutagens and mitotic stimulators; the reasons of liver cell polyploidy differences in mammalian species; mechanisms of radioresistance of hepatocytes. Chromosomal imbalance of polyploid hepatocytes is assumed to be the basis for wome chronic liver diseases in man.