Effects of nicotine-containing chewing gum on oral soft and hard tissues: A clinical study

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985 Jan;59(1):37-42. doi: 10.1016/0030-4220(85)90113-6.


A double-blind clinical trial was conducted to determine whether the use of a chewing gum containing 2.0 mg nicotine (as an adjunct to a stop-smoking program) had any effects upon oral health. A total of 193 adults who smoked cigarettes volunteered with informed consent, were given routine dental prophylaxes, and were examined for the presence of plaque, stained pellicle, gingivitis, calculus, and general oral pathosis. The subjects were then randomly assigned to use either a nicotine-containing or a placebo chewing gum. After 15 weeks the subjects were recalled and re-examined. Smoking cessation was determined through questionnaire and analysis of the carbon monoxide content of alveolar air. At the completion of the study, 79 subjects had used the placebo gum and 78 had used the nicotine gum. Data analysis indicated that the nicotine chewing gum had no significant influence on any of the oral health parameters graded, as compared to the placebo gum. The continuation of smoking, however, was associated with significant increases in gingivitis and calculus rates.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Dioxide / analysis
  • Chewing Gum*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dental Calculus / etiology
  • Dental Calculus / physiopathology
  • Dental Pellicle
  • Dental Plaque / etiology
  • Dental Plaque / physiopathology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Gingivitis / etiology*
  • Gingivitis / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Mouth Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Nicotine / pharmacology*
  • Placebos
  • Random Allocation
  • Respiration
  • Smoking
  • Tooth Discoloration / etiology
  • Tooth Discoloration / physiopathology
  • Tooth Diseases / etiology*
  • Tooth Diseases / physiopathology


  • Chewing Gum
  • Placebos
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Nicotine