In order to establish the relative importance of genetic factors on the variation in plasma concentration of coagulation factors VIII and IX, these parameters were determined in 74 monozygotic and 84 like-sexed dizygotic twin pairs. The twins belonged to two age groups: 33-39 years and 57-62 years. Factor VIII was determined as factor VIII coagulant antigen (VIIICAg) and as factor VIII-related antigen (VIIIRAg). Factor IX was determined as factor IX antigen (IXAg). A higher value for each coagulation factor was found in the older-age group compared to the younger group, whereas no difference was found between the sexes. A significant correlation was found between values for VIIIRAg and VIIICAg (r = .56). For VIIICAg, it could be demonstrated that the age effect was secondary to the age effect on VIIIRAg. The concentration of VIIICAg and VIIIRAg varied among ABO blood types, being lowest in type O individuals, higher in A2 individuals, and highest in A1 and B individuals. The effect of the ABO locus on VIIICAg was secondary to an effect on VIIIRAg. Analysis of variance revealed a significant genetic influence on the variance of VIIICAg and VIIIRAg with a heritability estimate of .57 for VIIICAg and .66 for VIIIRAg. This is in agreement with a previous hypothesis of an effect of several autosomal genes on factor VIII concentration. Thirty percent of the genetic variance of VIIIRAg was due to the effect of ABO blood type. The ABO locus is therefore a major locus for the determination of factor VIII concentration. No significant genetic effect on the variation in plasma concentration of IXAg could be detected.