Interferons are a family of proteins first identified by their ability to induce cellular resistance to infection by many viruses. In addition to the antiviral properties it shares with the alpha- and beta-interferons, gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), a lymphokine secreted by activated T cells, activates macrophages, stimulates B cells, increases fibroblast and endothelial cell resistance to many nonviral intracellular parasites and modulates cell-surface proteins central to immune cell regulation. To identify molecules involved in the IFN-gamma response and characterize their modulation, we have isolated genes that are induced following recombinant IFN-gamma treatment of U937 cells, a histiocytic lymphoma cell line with monocytic characteristics. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of a gene regulated by rIFN-gamma in U937 cells as well as in human mononuclear cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Messenger RNA from this gene is induced within 30 min of rIFN-gamma treatment and demonstrates maximal (greater than 30-fold) accumulation within 5 h. Increased transcription is partly responsible for this accumulation. This gene encodes a protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 12,378 which has significant amino-acid homology to platelet factor-4 and beta-thromboglobulin, two chemotatic proteins released by platelets on degranulation. This IFN-gamma-inducible protein may be a member of a family of proteins involved in the inflammatory process.