Two poly(L-proline)-binding proteins (PBP-1 and PBP-2) were purified from chick embryos by using a poly(L-proline)-agarose column. PBP-1 was composed of two different polypeptides (molecular masses of 42 kDa and 15 kDa). The molar ratio of the two proteins in the complex was 1:1. The other poly(L-proline)-binding protein, PBP-2, was the 15-kDa protein itself. The 42-kDa protein was confirmed to be an actin from the amino acid composition, by immunochemical evidence and by its ability to self-polymerize. In addition, the 42 + 15-kDa protein complex (PBP-1) inhibited DNase I, just as a monomeric actin did. The amino acid composition of the 15-kDa protein was similar to that of mammalian profilin and it inhibited the salt-induced polymerization of rabbit skeletal muscle actin. Therefore, we conclude that the two poly(L-proline)-binding proteins from the chick embryo are a profilactin and a profilin in chick embryo. The ability of profilactin to bind poly(L-proline) must be due to profilin itself, because the profilin has a greater affinity for poly(L-proline) than does profilactin. Additionally, both the monomeric and filamentous actin from rabbit skeletal muscle have no affinity for poly(L-proline).