Sputum or deep throat specimen cultures were obtained from 47 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients residing together at an eight-day summer camp. Pre-camp, initial day, final day and post-camp cultures were obtained and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were characterized by morphology, serotype, pigment production, serum sensitivity, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, hemolysis on blood agar, and CO2 growth requirement. Of the 47 patients, four were not chronically colonized with Pseudomonas and did not become colonized at camp. Analysis of the isolates from the other 43 revealed no significant alteration in the Pseudomonas colonization pattern. Cultures obtained from four sibling pairs among the campers and from 20 additional pairs of siblings revealed that siblings in 20/24 pairs had at least one identical serotype in common. Of the criteria used for characterization, serotyping was the most definitive method for strain identification. Serotyping by both the Homma system and the International system did not detect any serotype at a frequency of more than 31%. In this study, the predominant P. aeruginosa strain of the colonized patients did not change, and non-colonized individuals did not become colonized with P. aeruginosa.