One hundred eighty-four patients were enrolled in a randomized study that evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a single dose of orally administered cefuroxine axetil in the treatment of men and women with uncomplicated gonorrhea. Sixty-two patients received cefuroxine axetil alone, 62 received cefuroxine axetil and probenecid, and 60 received amoxicillin plus probenecid. Cure rates in the three groups were 98%, 98%, 96%, respectively. Only 2% of patients who received cefuroxine axetil alone complained of nausea, as compared with 11% of those who received a regimen that contained probenecid (P less than .05). The results show that cefuroxime axetil is effective and nontoxic in the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults.