A national, stratified random sample of 405 graduate medical education program directors was surveyed on the way they selected their residents. The results from the 237 respondents reaffirm earlier studies which found that the interview was the most important selection variable. The results indicate that the recent increase in competition for residency positions has increased the importance of academic variables. For example, 86 percent of the respondents stated that they would not rank a candidate who had not passed the National Board of Medical Examiners Part I examination. Because 86 percent also stated that they give preference in ranking students to those who have done well in an elective at their hospitals, the senior year of medical school may be used as a "residency chase" rather than for the general professional education of the physician.