An eleven-year experience with intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) or counterpulsation in 637 patients was analyzed with respect to early and late results. Intraaortic balloon pumping was employed for left ventricular pump failure, for coronary insufficiency, and in association with cardiac operations. Late results were analyzed by follow-up of 283 (93%) of the 304 patients leaving the hospital, and were studied with respect to duration of survival, activity status, occupational status, presence of cardiac symptoms, use of cardiac medications, and presence of lower extremity claudication. Early results were analyzed for hospital survival (304/637 [48%]). Patient complications of IABP included wound infection (1/637 or 0.2%), vascular complications (66/637 or 10.4%), and balloon failure (8/637 or 1.3%). No deaths were attributable to complications of IABP. Survival did not correlate with the duration of IABP. Survival was improved in patients who had revascularization in association with IABP.