On May 20, 1984, the Surgeon General challenged the health community to work toward attainment of a smoke-free society by the year 2000. The leadership of the nation's three major voluntary organizations joined numerous associations of health professionals in accepting the challenge. The Subcommittee on Smoking of the American Heart Association (AHA) has concluded that attaining this objective requires the development and implementation of public policies designed to facilitate the transition from a smoking to a nonsmoking society. To study the relevant issues and recommend appropriate policies, the subcommittee commissioned a working group of distinguished experts in the field of smoking and health to prepare a policy statement. The statement, published here, has received the enthusiastic endorsement of the Subcommittee on Smoking and the leadership of the AHA. The working group discusses and recommends four policies: Increase the federal cigarette excise tax. Eliminate or restrict tobacco advertising and other forms of promotion. Assure the rights of nonsmokers to clean air through legislative means. Identify mechanisms to ease and assist the transition of tobacco farmers to other crops or careers.