Cytoskeletons were prepared from measles virus infected HeLa cells to investigate the involvement of cytoskeletal filaments in virus budding at the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletons retained nearly 80% of measles virus hemagglutinin, the major viral polypeptides, including P, NP, and M, and 2 to 12% of the total cell bound infectivity. As demonstrated with platinum- and carbon-shadowed cytoskeletons, all stages of budding, i.e., virus specific strands, stub-like protrusions, and completely rounded virus particles, are associated with actin filaments composing the outer part of the cytoskeletal network. As shown with ultrathin sections of flat embedded extracted cells, actin filaments identified with heavy meromyosin almost exclusively protrude into virus particles with their barbed ends and are in close association with viral nucleocapsids. The data support previous suggestions that actin is involved in virus budding and show that budding itself is possibly the result of a vectorial growth of actin filaments.