A study of the sociomedical aspects of child labor (employment of children aged 15 years or less) was conducted among 400 street hawkers in the city of Enugu, Nigeria; 200 pupils of the University of Nigeria Primary School (UNPS) served as control subjects. The street hawkers were found to be predominantly males from low-income families who combined street trading with schooling. Those who left school did so largely due to lack of funds. Compared with control subjects in identical classes, the hawkers were on the average 2 years older in age, were of poorer physique, and had lower hemoglobin values. The medical and social hazards of child labor are highlighted and methods of control discussed.