Signs and Symptoms of Tobacco Withdrawal

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986 Mar;43(3):289-94. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800030107013.

Abstract

To test the validity, magnitude, and clinical significance of the signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal defined by DSM-III, both observed and reported signs and symptoms were measured in 50 smokers during two days of ad lib smoking and then during the first four days of abstinence. Observer and subject ratings of the DSM-III symptoms of craving for tobacco, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and restlessness increased after cessation. In addition, bradycardia, impatience, somatic complaints, insomnia, increased hunger, and increased eating occurred after cessation. The frequency and intensity of these symptoms varied across subjects; however, the average distress from tobacco withdrawal was similar to that observed in psychiatric outpatients. Subjects who had more withdrawal discomfort were more tolerant to the cardiovascular effects of nicotine. Subjects who had more withdrawal discomfort did not have a lower rate of smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chewing Gum
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Manuals as Topic
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / etiology
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Nicotine / adverse effects
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / etiology
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*
  • Tobacco*

Substances

  • Chewing Gum
  • Nicotine