Eighteen ESRD and 18 Control subjects equated for age and intellectual level were assessed pre- and post-dialysis on measures of learning, problem solving and immediate memory. No significant differences were found between ESRD and Control subjects on any of the measures. Both groups showed significant learning over trials on the Paired Associate Learning Task. No correlational associations of statistical or clinical significance were found between the cognitive measures and blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine. There was no difference between pre- and post-dialysis session performance by the ESRD subjects. These findings were inconsistent with prior research showing immediate improvement in cognition post-dialysis.