The critical conditions for mucous layer transport in the respiratory airways by two-phase gas-liquid flow mechanism were investigated by using 0.5- and 1.0-cm-ID tube models. Several test liquids with rheological properties comparable to human sputum were supplied continuously into the vertically positioned tube models in such a way that the liquid could form a uniform layer while traveling upward through the tube with a continuous upward airflow. The critical airflow rate and critical liquid layer thickness required for the upward transport of the liquids were determined. The critical airflow rate was in the Reynolds number (Re) range of 142-1,132 in the 0.5-cm-ID tube model and 708-2,830 in the 1.0-cm-ID tube model depending on the types of liquids tested. In both models, the critical airflow rate was lower with viscoelastic liquids than with viscous oils. The critical liquid layer thickness ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mm in the 0.5-cm-ID tube model and 0.8 to 1.4 mm in the 1.0-cm-ID tube model at Re of 2,800. These values decreased rapidly with increasing airflow rate. The critical thickness relative to the tube diameter ranged from 3 to 15% of the respective tube diameter and was lower by approximately 30-50% in the 0.5-cm-ID tube model than in the 1.0-cm-ID tube model over the entire Re range tested. The results indicate that the critical conditions for the mucus transport by two-phase gas-liquid flow mechanism are within the range that can be achieved in patients with bronchial hypersecretions during normal breathing.