An association between bladder cancer and employment as an artistic painter was found in two study populations. A proportionate mortality analysis of death certificates of professional artists indicated a greater than twofold excess for bladder cancer mortality among painters. This association was further investigated in a large case-control interview study of bladder cancer patients where an overall relative risk estimate of 2.5 was found among artistic painters. Excess deaths from leukemia and arteriosclerotic heart disease also occurred in the proportionate mortality study. Information was not available to determine exposure to specific substances that may have been responsible for these observations; however, efforts should be made to limit exposure to art materials known to be hazardous.