A total of 69 bladder cancer, 76 lung cancer and 59 liver cancer deceased cases and 368 alive community controls group-matched on age and sex were studied to evaluate the association between high-arsenic artesian well water and cancers in the endemic area of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease related to continuous arsenic exposure. According to a standardized structured questionnaire, information on risk factors was obtained through proxy interview of the cases and personal interview of the controls. A positive dose-response relationship was observed between the exposure to artesian well water and cancers of bladder, lung and liver. The age-sex-adjusted odds ratios of developing bladder, lung and liver cancers for those who had used artesian well water for 40 or more years were 3.90, 3.39, and 2.67, respectively, as compared with those who never used artesian well water. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses showed that the dose-response relationships and odds ratios remained much the same while other risk factors were further adjusted.