Changes in water and electrolyte content of the brain and edema formation after acute, drug-induced hypertension were studied in albino rabbits. Blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers opened to Evans blue-albumin when systemic blood pressure was elevated abruptly to more than 160 mm Hg by i.v. injection of Aramin. No statistically significant changes in sodium and potassium content of brain, muscle, and CSF were observed. Measurable brain edema did not develop. The results suggest that short-lasting hypertensive barrier opening does not cause brain edema, but may enhance a tendency for brain edema.