The histories of 22 infants presenting during the first year of life with obstructive uropathy due to posterior urethral valves were analyzed to determine outcome and prognostic features. Mean patient age at the time of the initial surgical intervention was 39 days, and the mean duration of followup inclusive of renal function data was 5.8 years. One patient died (5 per cent) and one had end stage renal disease. The mean preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine concentrations during the initial hospitalization were 3.1 and 1.4 mg. per dl., respectively. Neither value was significantly predictive of the creatinine concentration at final followup. In contrast, the nadir creatinine value during the first year of life correlated significantly with final renal function. Children with nadir creatinine values less than or equal to 0.8 mg. per dl. by 12 months of age maintained creatinine levels less than or equal to 1.1 mg. per dl. at the time of final evaluation, whereas children with higher values during the first year of life were likely to have progressive renal failure. Of 19 final creatinine determinations 6 were normal and 5 exceeded 1.5 mg. per dl. Proteinuria, hypertension, renal biopsy findings, urinary infection, unilateral nephrectomy and type of surgery did not correlate significantly with functional outcome. Followup studies of longer duration are needed to determine the ultimate outcome of these patients, more than half of whom had some degree of renal insufficiency at final evaluation.