In the years 1974 to 1981, herniography was performed in 78 athletes with groin pain. The investigation comprised 101 painful groin sides in 23 athletes with bilateral symptoms. Before herniography, a hernia was palpated in only eight (7.9 percent) groins with pain. Hernias were found at herniography in 84.2 percent of the symptomatic groin sides and in 49.1 percent of the asymptomatic groin sides. Sixty-three hernia operations were performed. The herniographic and operative diagnoses corresponded well. Direct hernias dominated among the operated athletes, and were found in 55.6 percent of those below 30 years of age. Altogether 69.8 percent of the operated patients were cured by hernia repair and another 20.6 percent were improved. Tenoperiostitis of the adductor muscles was the most frequent diagnosis in those not cured by operation and among the nonoperated patients. Herniography was of great value in selecting those patients who needed a repair. A broad differential diagnostic approach when examining these patients is of the utmost importance.