Of 276 patients who underwent an initial colonoscopic polypectomy for adenomatous polyps over a 45-month period, 118 subsequently had one or more repeat screening colonoscopies. The mean follow-up time was 26 months with an overall polyp recurrence rate of 30%. Analysis of these data retrospectively suggests that the bulk of the recurrences occurred within the first year. Increasing age was found to be a significant risk factor for polyp recurrence. Asymptomatic recurrence of adenomatous polyps detectable by colonoscopy is a common occurrence in postpolypectomy patients. Prospective studies utilizing colonoscopy as a screening tool are needed to establish a rational screening policy for this high-risk group.