Intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were strictly controlled in 11 pediatric victims of near-drowning. Three outcome groups were defined: complete recovery, persistent vegetative state, and death. In the early postimmersion phase (first 72 h), CPP was consistently above 50 mm Hg in all patients. There were occasional, nonrepetitive, and easily controllable ICP spikes above 15 mm Hg in three patients from each group. Repeated ICP spikes above 15 mm Hg were observed in some patients with adverse outcome only after 72 h. Successful control of ICP and CPP did not ensure intact survival, and sustained late intracranial hypertension is more likely a sign of profound neurologic insult rather than its cause.