The third heart sound

Int J Cardiol. 1985 Mar;7(3):213-21. doi: 10.1016/0167-5273(85)90044-0.


A unitary concept is proposed to explain the genesis of the third heart sound and associated "rapid filling wave" of the apexcardiogram in physiological and pathological states including constrictive pericarditis. This theory not only clarifies the hitherto unexplained phenomenon such as presence of S3 in significant mitral stenosis, but also places in proper perspective the hemodynamic significance of S3 in physiological and various pathological states.

MeSH terms

  • Diastole
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Auscultation*
  • Heart Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Sounds*
  • Heart Valve Diseases / diagnosis
  • Heart Valves / physiopathology
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Kinetocardiography
  • Myocardial Contraction
  • Pericarditis, Constrictive / diagnosis
  • Phonocardiography