Tumorigenic aspects

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1978;16(6):473-8. doi: 10.1002/j.1879-3479.1979.tb00952.x.


This report presents a review of tumors, except those of pituitary, that have been reported to occur in women taking combined oral contraceptive preparations. Pathologic features, both gross and microscopic, and differential diagnosis are emphasized. Particular attention is given to tumors of the liver: focal nodular hyperplasia (hepatic hamartoma) and liver cell adenoma (benign hepatoma). The characteristic features of these usually distinctive lesions are illustrated, and an attempt is made to evaluate the significance of each with respect to oral contraceptives. Tumorigenic aspects relating to the uterus and the breast are briefly discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenofibroma / pathology
  • Breast Diseases / chemically induced
  • Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / chemically induced
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemically induced
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Contraceptives, Oral / adverse effects*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / adverse effects*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperplasia
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Pregnancy
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / chemically induced
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Vaginal Smears


  • Contraceptives, Oral
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic