Sickness absenteeism, of hospital employees particularly, is a problem of concern due to its negative economic and morale impacts. The aim of the first stage of the study was to identify according to some demographic (sex, age, marital status) and occupational (occupational group, duration of hospital employment) variables those groups of hospital employees who are at higher risk of sickness absenteeism. A comparison with the data of the study performed in the same hospital about 15 years ago showed a rise in the duration of absences with a simultaneous reduction in their incidence. Sickness absenteeism was higher among female, mainly unskilled, workers, presently or previously married, aged from 45 to 60, and employed in the hospital for over ten years. Continuous social and medical surveillance of these employees is suggested as a promising way of reducing sickness absenteeism.