The results of an inquiry by the Commission on Antiepileptic Drugs of the International League Against Epilepsy on the availability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in 35 developing countries are reported. In general, the data indicate a nonhomogeneous distribution and availability of currently marketed AEDs. Older and less efficacious compounds (such as phenobarbital) are the AEDs available to most patients, whereas newer and more efficacious compounds are either not available or restricted to a very limited number of cases. Possible factors responsible for such a situation are discussed. The Commission considers the present situation alarming.