The organization of the fourth abdominal ganglion of the crayfish, Procambarus clarki, was studied with the light microscope in serial sections stained with osmium ethyl gallate. This ganglion is composed of a ventral rind of somata and a core of alternating layers of through-tracts and commissures. The longitudinal tracts of the ganglion are named according to the system in use for the orthopteran insects, because the basic plans of the crustacean and insect ventral ganglia exhibit striking anatomical parallels. The dorsal tracts are the largest and the most regular in their path through the ganglion. In the ventral posterior quadrant of the ganglion the tracts diverge from the basic plan to pass around the major synaptic neuropil and the bases of the peripheral nerves. This paper reports the three-dimensional anatomy of the major longitudinal through-tracts, internal tracts and commissures, and bases of peripheral nerves. Landmark features of the ganglion--including the tracts, the major artery of the vascular system, the shape of the ganglionic core in section, and prominent single cells, all of which make it possible to recognize specific regions of the ganglion--are described.