The effect of clomiphene citrate (CC) at various concentrations (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 micrograms/ml) on the in vitro motility and fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa was studied. Spermatozoa collected from 14 normal men were washed in modified Krebs-Ringer solution (Biggers, Whitten and Whittingham [BWW] medium) and incubated with CC for 5 hours, the period required for spermatozoal capacitation. The percent motilities of spermatozoa were recorded at 0 and 5 hours during incubation with CC. After incubation, the spermatozoa were washed with BWW medium to remove CC before insemination of the zona-free hamster ova. CC caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the penetration of denuded hamster ova in comparison with the control (P less than 0.05). Significant depressive effect on spermatozoal motility was observed with CC at 0.05 micrograms/ml or higher concentrations (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that (1) CC decreases human spermatozoal fertilizing capacity in vitro and (2) the inhibitory effect on fertilizing capacity could be due to the sperm-immobilizing activity of CC.