Induction of gene mutations in mice: the multiple endpoint approach

Mutat Res. Jun-Jul 1985;150(1-2):393-401. doi: 10.1016/0027-5107(85)90136-8.


The multiple endpoint mammalian mutagenesis approach developed in our institute screens in the same animal for recessive specific-locus alleles at 7 loci, approximately 30 loci coding for dominant-cataract mutations, 23 loci controlling protein-charge changes and 12 loci for enzyme-activity alterations. Experiments to screen for the approximately 70 loci in the same offspring of treated male mice were performed with ethylnitrosourea (ENU), procarbazine and X-ray exposure. Mutations were recovered for each genetic endpoint in all treatment groups where a sufficient number of offspring was scored. ENU treatment is highly effective in inducing mutations to all genetic endpoints. The mutations were confirmed by breeding tests. The mutation rates to specific-locus and enzyme-activity alleles were both higher than the mutation rates to either dominant-cataract or protein-charge alleles. The advantages and possibilities of the multiple endpoint approach are discussed in detail.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cataract / etiology
  • Ethylnitrosourea / toxicity
  • Female
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Isoelectric Point
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mutagenicity Tests*
  • Mutation / drug effects*
  • Mutation / radiation effects
  • Procarbazine / toxicity
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Skin Pigmentation
  • Spermatogonia / drug effects
  • Spermatogonia / radiation effects
  • X-Rays


  • Proteins
  • Procarbazine
  • Ethylnitrosourea