Calcification of entheses associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic osteomalacia

N Engl J Med. 1985 Jul 4;313(1):1-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198507043130101.


We undertook a retrospective analysis of 26 patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (or rickets), whose ages ranged from 1 to 62 years and who were from 11 different kindreds, to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of a unique disorder of the entheses (tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules). We found a generalized involvement of the entheses, with exuberant calcification of tendon and ligament insertions and of joint capsules, in 69 per cent of the subjects. The prevalence and extent of disease increased with age but were not correlated with sex. Commonly affected sites included the hand and sacroiliac joints. Histologic evaluation in a selected patient revealed intratendinous lamellar bone but no inflammatory cells. Our observations indicate that this disorder is an integral part of X-linked hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and exhibits clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics that differentiate it from degenerative disorders of these tissues and seronegative spondyloarthropathies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Calcinosis / complications*
  • Calcinosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Calcinosis / pathology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • HLA Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypophosphatemia, Familial / complications*
  • Infant
  • Joint Diseases / complications
  • Ligaments* / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteomalacia / complications*
  • Osteomalacia / genetics
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Synovial Membrane / diagnostic imaging
  • Tendons* / diagnostic imaging
  • Tendons* / pathology


  • HLA Antigens