A retrospective analysis of all renal biopsies performed in the Grampian Region of Scotland during 1977-1980 revealed that IgA nephropathy was the most frequently encountered glomerular lesion. The commonest indications for renal biopsy were the presence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (90/184; 48.9%) especially asymptomatic haematuria (42/184; 22.8%). A histological diagnosis was made in 36 of the 42 patients presenting with asymptomatic haematuria (85.7%); 16 of the 26 cases of IgA nephropathy presented in this way. Overall, IgA nephropathy was detected in 14.1% of all biopsies and accounted for 21.8% of primary glomerular diseases. This study indicates that IgA nephropathy is apparently more common in Grampian than elsewhere in the United Kingdom. However, it is suggested that this does not represent a true variation in the prevalence of the condition; IgA nephropathy is probably a common cause of haematuria in the United Kingdom.