Psychosocial mediators of abstinence, relapse, and continued smoking: a one-year follow-up of a minimal intervention

Addict Behav. 1985;10(1):29-39. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(85)90050-4.


This study investigates the relationship of health locus of control, health beliefs, social support, use of nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to long-term abstinence and relapse following a minimal intervention for smoking cessation. Subjects participated in a single session group hypnosis treatment for smoking cessation. Questionnaires were completed by participants pretreatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Ex-smoker, recidivist, and continuing smoker groups were defined using follow-up data from 219 participants (70 males and 149 females). The data were analyzed using univariate and multiple discriminant analysis techniques. The results show that the three smoking status groups could be discriminated. Ex-smokers actively coped with smokers in their environment, avoided other smokers in public places, and received considerable support from spouses and friends. In contrast, recidivists prior to treatment had been unable to quit smoking for extended periods of time and placed greater responsibility on powerful others for their health. Following treatment, recidivists did not actively cope with smokers, were more likely to participate in additional hypnosis, and placed less responsibility on either powerful others or themselves for their own health. It was concluded that posttreatment factors appear to be more important for long-term maintenance of nonsmoking than entry characteristics of participants. Recommendations include incorporation of coping skills training into cessation programs and restrictions on smoking in the ex-smokers' environments to prevent relapse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude to Health
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Hypnosis
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Smoking
  • Social Support
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / therapy