The survival times of patients who had an elective regional lymph node dissection was compared with that of those who did not undergo the procedure in a database of 72 patients with clinical Stage I melanoma of intermediate thickness (1.51-3.99 mm). All of the patients had been followed for 5 years or longer or until death. No significant differences were found in other reported prognostic factors, suggesting that the two groups were comparable. By multivariate analysis, a low mitotic rate, intermediate patient age, and the presence of an infiltrative lymphocytic response were found to be associated with favorable survival. There did not appear to be any association of elective regional lymph node dissection with survival; and it was concluded that such therapy should not be regarded as "standard" for clinical Stage I melanoma of intermediate thickness.