A group of 18 children with refractory epileptic seizures was divided into three groups--behavior modification treatment, attention control, and control groups--with the purpose of investigating the effects of a learning-based broad-spectrum treatment program superimposed on a regular medical treatment program. The design consisted of a 10-week baseline, 6-week intervention, and 10-week and 1-year follow-ups. A combination of number of seizures and seizure duration--termed "seizure index"--was used as a dependent measure. There was a significant reduction in seizure index only for those children receiving the behavior modification treatment, at both follow-ups. The results indicate that this behavioral treatment program may be of substantial help to children with epilepsy who are resistant to conventional drug therapy.