Familial and environmental interactions in bladder cancer risk

Int J Cancer. 1985 Jun 15;35(6):703-6. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910350602.


In a population-based study of 2,982 bladder cancer patients and 5,782 controls in 10 geographic areas of the United States which was designed to assess the role of environmental risk factors, information was also obtained on the history of urinary tract cancer in first-degree relatives. A family history of urinary tract cancer significantly elevated the risk of bladder cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.45], with higher risks observed among patients under age 45. The risks of bladder cancer associated with positive family history were generally higher among persons with suspected environmental exposures, particularly heavy cigarette smoking (RR = 10.7 among those who smoked 3 or more packs per day). Further studies of bladder cancer should incorporate biochemical and genetic probes to assess mechanisms of familial susceptibility and interactions with environmental factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics
  • Coffee
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / etiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking
  • Sweetening Agents
  • United States
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics


  • Coffee
  • Sweetening Agents