To determine the long-term risk of the development of gastric cancer among patients with pernicious anemia, we identified the 152 residents of Rochester, Minnesota, who had well-documented pernicious anemia during the 30-year period 1950 through 1979. These patients were subsequently followed up for more than 1,550 person-years of observation. The observed risk of the development of a gastric cancer in this cohort was compared with that expected on the basis of incidence rates of gastric cancer for the local population. We found one case of gastric carcinoma among our 152 patients with pernicious anemia as compared with an expected incidence of 1.02 (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 through 5.5). We conclude that no strong indication exists for either radiographic or endoscopic surveillance in asymptomatic patients with pernicious anemia.